Current understanding of fear learning and memory in humans and animal models and the value of a linguistic approach for analyzing fear learning and memory in humans

Jacob Raber, Shahar Arzy, Julie Boulanger Bertolus, Brendan Depue, Haley E. Haas, Stefan G. Hofmann, Maria Kangas, Elizabeth Kensinger, Christopher A. Lowry, Hilary A. Marusak, Jessica Minnier, Anne Marie Mouly, Andreas Mühlberger, Seth Davin Norrholm, Kirsi Peltonen, Graziano Pinna, Christine Rabinak, Youssef Shiban, Hermona Soreq, Michael A. van der KooijLeroy Lowe, Leah T. Weingast, Paula Yamashita, Sydney Weber Boutros

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)
    109 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Fear is an emotion that serves as a driving factor in how organisms move through the world. In this review, we discuss the current understandings of the subjective experience of fear and the related biological processes involved in fear learning and memory. We first provide an overview of fear learning and memory in humans and animal models, encompassing the neurocircuitry and molecular mechanisms, the influence of genetic and environmental factors, and how fear learning paradigms have contributed to treatments for fear-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Current treatments as well as novel strategies, such as targeting the perisynaptic environment and use of virtual reality, are addressed. We review research on the subjective experience of fear and the role of autobiographical memory in fear-related disorders. We also discuss the gaps in our understanding of fear learning and memory, and the degree of consensus in the field. Lastly, the development of linguistic tools for assessments and treatment of fear learning and memory disorders is discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)136-177
    Number of pages42
    JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
    Volume105
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

    Keywords

    • fear
    • virtual reality
    • linguistics
    • autobiography
    • subjective fear
    • neuroanatomy
    • neuropharmacology

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