The ability of curved gratings as sectors of concentric circular gratings to couple linearly polarised light into focused surface plasmons is investigated by theory, simulation, and experiment. The experimental and simulation results show that increasing the sector angle of the curved gratings decreases the width of the lateral distribution of surface plasmons resulting in focusing of surface plasmons, which is analogous to the behaviour of classical optical lenses. We also show that two faced curved gratings, with their groove radius mismatched by half of the plasmon wavelength (asymmetric configuration), can couple linearly polarised light into a single focal spot of concentrated surface plasmons with smaller depth of focus and higher intensity in comparison to single curved gratings. The major advantage of these structures is the coupling of linearly polarised light into focused surface plasmons with access to, and control of, the plasmon focal spot, which facilitate their potential applications in sensing, detection, and nonlinear plasmonics.
- Diffraction gratings
- Surface plasmons