We describe a hybrid de-embedding method that can achieve a good balance between accuracy and the number of standards required. In this new approach, the characterization of a fixture is based on a combination of electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement. The S-parameters of the fixture are initially obtained from EM simulations, and then modified according to the measured results of one or more arbitrary standards using a least-norm correction algorithm. Compared with conventional techniques in which the fixture is fully characterized based on measurement, the hybrid approach can provide similar de-embedding accuracy with fewer standards, or better accuracy with the same standards. Compared with full-wave de-embedding in which the characterization is fully based on EM simulation, systematic errors are reduced due to the use of standards, and thus the de-embedding performance can be improved. The above advantages are experimentally demonstrated through the de-embedding of a dummy two-port coaxial device and a packaged field-effect transistor. The hybrid method is also applicable to devices with an arbitrary number of ports, which can be very attractive in many applications.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2017|