There is a considerable and growing body of research investigating reading development in children with Down syndrome. However, there appears to be a common gap between the research evidence and instructional practices. It has been argued that teachers have insufficient information to enable them to implement effective literacy instruction with children with Down syndrome. This has important implications for teacher education. The current paper draws on past and current research evidence to consider five common misunderstandings or 'myths' that exist in regards to reading development in children with Down syndrome regarding (1) receptive and expressive language, (2) phonological awareness and phonic decoding, (3) 'reading readiness' or (non)linear development, (4) optimal learning age and, (5) reading comprehension. A case example is presented and implications for teaching practice are explored.