In the present study we investigate the microstructural development in mullite, quartz and garnet in an anatectic migmatite hosted within a Grenvillian-age shear zone in the Aravalli–Delhi Fold Belt. The migmatite exhibits three main deformation structures and fabrics (S1, S2, S3). Elongated garnet porphyroblasts are aligned parallel to the metatexite S2 layers and contain crenulation hinges defined by biotite–sillimanite–mullite–quartz (with S1 axial planar foliation). Microstructural evidence and phase equilibrium relations establish the garnet as a peritectic phase of incongruent melting by breakdown of biotite, sillimanite ± mullite and quartz at peak P–T of ~ 8 kbar, 730 °C along a tight-loop, clockwise P–T path. Monazite dating establishes that the partial melting occurred between ~ 1000 and 870 Ma. The absence of subgrains and systematic crystal lattice distortions in these garnets despite their elongation suggests growth pseudomorphing pre-existing 3-D networks of S1 biotite aggregates rather than high-temperature crystal plastic deformation which is noted in the S1 quartz grains that exhibit strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), undulatory extinction and subgrains. Mode-I fractures in these garnet porphyroblasts induced by high melt pressure during late stage of partial melt crystallization are filled by retrograde biotite–sillimanite. Weak CPO and non-systematic crystal lattice distortions in the coarse quartz grains within the S2 leucosome domains indicate these crystallized during melt solidification without later crystal plastic deformation overprint. In the later stages of deformation (D3), strain was mostly accommodated in the mullite–biotite–sillimanite-rich restite domains forming S3 which warps around garnet and leucosome domains; consequently, fine-grained S3 quartz does not exhibit strong CPOs.
- Melt-present deformation
- Anatectic migmatites
- Crystal preferred orientation