a neglected component of antipredator defence

Kate D.L. Umbers*, Sebastiano De Bona, Thomas E. White, Jussi Lehtonen, Johanna Mappes, John A. Endler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/opinion

32 Citations (Scopus)


Deimatic or 'startle' displays cause a receiver to recoil reflexively in response to a sudden change in sensory input. Deimatism is sometimes implicitly treated as a form of aposematism (unprofitability associated with a signal). However, the fundamental difference is, in order to provide protection, deimatism does not require a predator to have any learned or innate aversion. Instead, deimatism can confer a survival advantage by exploiting existing neural mechanisms in away that releases a reflexive response in the predator. We discuss the differences among deimatism, aposematism, and forms of mimicry, and their ecological and evolutionary implications. We highlight outstanding questions critical to progress in understanding deimatism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20160936
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalBiology Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


  • aposematism
  • startle reflex
  • warning colours
  • camouflage
  • predator–prey
  • Acripeza

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