Design and development of an IoT-enabled portable phosphate detection system in water for smart agriculture

Fowzia Akhter*, H. R. Siddiquei, Md Eshrat E. Alahi, S. C. Mukhopadhyay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


This research proposes a novel low-cost, low-power planar interdigital phosphate sensor for smart agriculture. A 3D printed mould is used for sensor fabrication. The electrodes and substrate of the sensor are formed using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), respectively. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is applied to characterize the sensor for a wide range of temperature and phosphate detection. The proposed sensor can differentiate differently concentrated phosphate solutions from 0.01 ppm ∼ 40 ppm. Validation of the experimental outcomes using the standard UV–vis Spectrometry promotes the reliability of the sensor. An IoT-enabled portable smart phosphate detection system is also designed and developed. The Arduino-based system is trained with a machine learning model trains to predict phosphate concentration in actual water samples. This enables surveilling water quality from any place and getting experts opinion from any remote location. The portable phosphate detection system will be highly beneficial for continuous water quality monitoring and significantly impact smart agriculture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112861
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2021


  • Phosphate
  • PDMS
  • IoT
  • Water qualitya


Dive into the research topics of 'Design and development of an IoT-enabled portable phosphate detection system in water for smart agriculture'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this