Design, modeling, and evaluation of the eddy current sensor deeply implanted in the human body

Rajas Prakash Khokle*, Karu P. Esselle, Desmond J. Bokor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


Joint replacement surgeries have enabled motion for millions of people suffering from arthritis or grave injuries. However, over 10% of these surgeries are revision surgeries. We have first analyzed the data from the worldwide orthopedic registers and concluded that the micromotion of orthopedic implants is the major reason for revisions. Then, we propose the use of inductive eddy current sensors for in vivo micromotion detection of the order of tens of μ m. To design and evaluate its characteristics, we have developed efficient strategies for the accurate numerical simulation of eddy current sensors implanted in the human body. We present the response of the eddy current sensor as a function of its frequency and position based on the robust curve fit analysis. Sensitivity and Sensitivity Range parameters are defined for the present context and are evaluated. The proposed sensors are fabricated and tested in the bovine leg.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3888
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2018

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2018. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • implantable sensor
  • eddy current sensor
  • micromotion sensor
  • orthopedic implants
  • electromagnetic FEM analysis


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