Designing annotation schemes: from model to representation

Nancy Ide, Christian Chiarcos, Manfred Stede, Steve Cassidy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The physical formats used to represent linguistic data and its annotations have evolved over the past four decades, accommodating different needs and perspectives as well as incorporating advances in data representation generally. This chapter provides an overview of representation formats with the aim of surveying the relevant issues for representing different data types together with current state-of-the-art solutions, in order to provide sufficient information to guide others in the choice of a representation format or formats.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of linguistic annotation
EditorsNancy Ide, James Pustejovsky
Place of PublicationDordrecht
PublisherSpringer, Springer Nature
Number of pages39
ISBN (Electronic)9789402408812
ISBN (Print)9789402408799
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Standards
  • Standards for linguistic annotation
  • Standard representation formats


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