Detection methodologies for pathogen and toxins: a review

Md Eshrat E. Alahi*, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)
105 Downloads (Pure)


Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes. The production process can be controlled in the food and agricultural sector, where smart sensors can play a major role, ensuring greater food quality and safety by low cost, fast, reliable, and profitable methods of detection. Techniques for the detection of pathogens and toxins may vary in cost, size, and specificity, speed of response, sensitivity, and precision. Smart sensors can detect, analyse and quantify at molecular levels contents of different biological origin and ensure quality of foods against spiking with pesticides, fertilizers, dioxin, modified organisms, anti-nutrients, allergens, drugs and so on. This paper reviews different methodologies to detect pathogens and toxins in foods and beverages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1885
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 16 Aug 2017

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2017. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • Bacterial infection
  • Biosensors
  • Chemical sensors
  • Endotoxin
  • Pathogen
  • Smart sensors
  • Toxin


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