Combining the high specificity of bacterial blosensors and the resolution power of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) provided qualitative detection of oxytetracycline production by Streptomyces rimosus in soil microcosms. A plasmid containing a transcriptional fusion between the tetR-regulated Ptet promoter from Tn10 and a FACS-optimized gfp gene was constructed. When harbored by Escherichia coli, this plasmid produces large amounts of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of tetracycline. This tetracycline biosensor was used to detect the production of oxytetracycflne by S. rimosus introduced into sterile soil. The tetracycline-induced GFP-producing biosensors were detected by FACS analysis, enabling the detection of oxytetracycline encounters by single biosensor cells. This approach can be used to study interactions between antibiotic producers and their target organisms in soil.