Development and initial evaluation of the craving metacognition scale

Kristen Tulloch*, Andrew J. Baillie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: Recent craving research has focused on individuals' beliefs about cravings. Yet, measures about craving beliefs have rarely been compared with other craving belief measures or measures of craving itself. We aimed to develop a craving metacognition measure with a simple factor structure that could be used by people with a range of alcohol use patterns. This article introduces the Craving Metacognition Scale, a measure of individuals' craving metacognitions. 

Method: Items were generated based on specific beliefs and attitudes related to craving and drinking, sourced from existing questionnaires and edited to emphasise metacognitive appraisal. Two samples tested the scale: one of individuals seeking treatment for alcohol use issues (n = 115) and the other of undergraduate students who drank regularly (n = 92). The items were refined based on contribution to the total score and divergence from existing measures. 

Results: The final 13-item scale showed strong internal consistency (α =.93) and good convergence with existing measures, such as the Jellinek Alcohol Craving Questionnaire-now (Pearson's r =.698) and the Metacognition Questionnaire for Alcohol Abusers subscales (between r =.602 and r =.811). 

Conclusions: The Craving Metacognition Scale shows preliminary evidence of psychometric validity. It has a simple factor structure that measures craving metacognitions reported by individuals with a range of drinking habits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-49
Number of pages12
JournalAustralian Psychologist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • alcohol
  • craving
  • drinking
  • measurement
  • metacognition


Dive into the research topics of 'Development and initial evaluation of the craving metacognition scale'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this