Development and preliminary validation of a trait version of the toronto mindfulness scale

Karen M. Davis, Mark A. Lau, David R. Cairns

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)


After developing a trait version of the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS), we evaluated its reliability, its convergent validity with six other trait mindfulness measures, and its construct validity in relation to prior meditation experience. A sample of nonmeditators ( N = 218) and meditators ( N = 243) with a wide range of meditation experience completed the Trait TMS and the six other mindfulness measures. Internal consistency reliability of the Trait TMS was comparable to that of the original State TMS. Significant positive correlations were found between both TMS factors and the other mindfulness measures; however, in general, the correlations for TMS Decenter were higher than for TMS Curiosity. Scores for TMS Decenter were shown to increase with meditation experience, but this was not the case for TMS Curiosity. The TMS Curiosity factor may assess a unique aspect of the mindfulness construct. Implications of these findings in relation to future mindfulness research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-195
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cognitive Psychotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Construct validity
  • Meditation
  • Mindfulness
  • Psychometric characteristics
  • Toronto mindfulness scale

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