Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a risky drinking practice for young people. The purpose of the current set of studies was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a theory-based CAB motives measure to understand what drives CAB consumption and its ensuing consequences. Using 4 different samples, we pilot tested the items of the Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages Motives Questionnaire (CABMQ) and then evaluated its factor structure and its convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity. Factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure. The coping and conformity subscales assessed negative reinforcement from internal and external sources, respectively. The social subscale assessed positive reinforcement derived from external sources, whereas the intoxication and energy enhancement subscales assessed positive reinforcement derived from internal sources. Differential relationships between the intoxication and energy enhancement subscales and existing motives measures provided compelling support for their individual distinctiveness. Greater endorsement of all subscales was related to experiencing more adverse alcohol-related consequences, whereas all subscales but the conformity subscale were related to greater CAB consumption. After controlling for general drinking motives, coping motives, energy enhancement motives, intoxication enhancement motives, and social motives were significantly correlated with CAB use, whereas only energy enhancement motives were significantly correlated with alcohol-related consequences. In sum, these results show that the CABMQ helps us understand CAB use and its consequences, with the energy enhancement subscale being particularly helpful. Future research should examine if energy enhancement motives explain why CABs pose more risk than drinking alcohol on its own.
- psychometric validation
- alcohol mixed with energy drinks