Objective: To develop and validate a short form of the Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire - Intoxication Effects (CEQ-I), a 42-item scale which measures the euphoric and paranoid-dysphoric effects of cannabis intoxication. Method: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted among 604 past-month cannabis users to develop the short form. The factor structure was replicated in a second sample of 146 past-month cannabis users. The concurrent validity of the scale was also examined. Results: Consistent with previous research, two factors were identified (paranoid-dysphoric; euphoric), and were replicated with confirmatory factor analyses. The most parsimonious scale consisted of 13 items. Correlations of short-form subscales with corresponding original subscales were high. The paranoid-dysphoric subscale was also moderately positively correlated with measures of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and psychological distress. Conclusions: The revised and validated CEQ-I short form can be used to explore the euphoric and paranoid-dysphoric effects of cannabis intoxication in young cannabis users, and whether these experiences increase their risk of developing cannabis use and psychotic disorders. The CEQ-I short form has the potential to aid in the identification of young cannabis users at risk of the paranoid-dysphoric effects of cannabis intoxication and may assist in the development of early intervention strategies targeting cannabis users with PLEs.
- cannabis experiences questionnaire
- psychotic like experiences
- substance use
- young people