Primary dysmenorrhea, or cramps, causes pain, limits activity, and increases emotional tension in young women, but its measurement has not received enough research attention. We have developed a functional and emotional measure of dysmenorrhea (FEMD, 14 items), and trialed it with a sample of 833 Chinese university women. Two factors (scales) were extracted by principal component analysis (PCA) and subsequently approved by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The two scales were intercorrelated and were correlated with experienced pain severity and, to a lesser degree, with the depressive tendency. We have demonstrated that FEMD has stable components that might help measure dysmenorrhea-related dysfunctions.