Development of a Risk Score for Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease

Christine L. Chiu, Nerissa L. Hearn, Joanne M. Lind*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to identify indicators of coeliac disease (CD) in an Australian cohort, beyond the known gastrointestinal symptoms. Individuals were recruited from the general population and at the 2014 Gluten Free Expo in Sydney and in Melbourne, Australia. Data on their current health status including medical history, diagnosis for CD, and family history were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of CD. A weighted risk score system was then generated for the independent predictors, and a risk score was calculated for each individual. A total of 301 individuals were included in the study. We found an association between CD and having a family history of CD (odds ratio [OR] 7.6, 95%confidence interval [CI] 3.7-15.6), an autoimmune disorder (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-4.1), anemia (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.8-11.9), lactose intolerance (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.2-17.7), and depression (OR 4.8, 95%CI 1.9-11.6). Risk score analysis found individuals in the medium (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.5 to 9.3) and high-risk (OR 36.6, 95%CI 16.4 to 81.6) groups were significantly more likely to report having CD compared with those in the low-risk group. This study identifies a set of factors more commonly observed in individuals with CD, beyond the traditional gastrointestinal complaints. These include a family history of CD, the presence of another autoimmune disorder, anemia, lactose intolerance, and depression. A risk score was developed (Coeliac Risk COMPARE) which scores individuals based on the presence or absence of these additional symptoms and provides an additional screening tool when assessing whether the patient requires follow-up testing for CD.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3286
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


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