Development of individual differences in reading

results from longitudinal studies in English and Finnish

Rauno Parrila*, Kaisa Aunola, Esko Leskinen, Jari Erik Nurmi, John R. Kirby

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

92 Citations (Scopus)


The authors examined individual differences in reading development in English and Finnish. English-speaking Canadian children were assessed once per year in Grades 1-5, and Finnish children were assessed twice per year in Grades 1-2. Results from latent growth curve and simplex analyses showed that initial status was generally negatively associated with subsequent growth and that, although stable, individual differences were more likely to significantly decrease than to increase across the measurement points. Growth mixture models identified multiple groups of children whose reading development followed distinct patterns. The results indicate that it is possible for educational systems to significantly reduce individual differences in basic reading skills during early reading development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-319
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • reading
  • reading development
  • Individual differences
  • developmental change
  • elementary school children

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