In this study, monosyllabic Mandarin speech test materials (MSTMs) were developed for use in word recognition tests for speech audiometry in Chinese audiology clinics. Mandarin monosyllabic materials with high familiarity were designed with regard to phonological balance and recorded digitally with a male voice. Inter-list equivalence of difficulty was evaluated for a group of 60 subjects (aged 1825 years) with normal hearing. Seven lists with 50 words each were found to be equivalent. These seven equivalent lists were used to measure performance-intensity (PI) functions for a group of 32 subjects with normal hearing and a group of 40 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. The mean slope of PI function was found to be 4.1%/dB and 2.7%/dB, respectively. The seven lists of Mandarin monosyllabic materials were found to have sufficient reliability and validity to be used in clinical situations.