Development of planning and its relation to other cognitive processes

Rauno K. Parrila*, J. P. Das, Udaya N. Dash

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to (a) delineate the course of development of children's planning skills during school years, (b) examine whether different levels of planning exist, and (c) explore the role of other cognitive processes as cognitive correlates of planning. The participants were 250 students, 50 from each of the five targeted grades (3, 5, 7, 9, and 11). They each completed a battery of planning, attention, and simultaneous and successive processing tasks. MANOVA indicated that the main effect of grade was significant, whereas gender had no significant effect on planning. Pairwise comparisons of performance means between grades indicated that developmental trajectories were not uniform across planning tasks. Correlation and regression analyses showed that the relationship between planning tasks and attention, and simultaneous and successive processing scores varied as a function of the planning task and the grade level. Furthermore, two planning factors were found and cluster analyses of variables indicated that one of the tasks, Crack-the-Code, may represent a different kind of planning than the other planning tasks used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-624
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Applied Developmental Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1996
Externally publishedYes


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