Diagnostic and prognostic potential of retinal biomarkers in early on-set Alzheimer’s disease

Sahar Shariflou, Dana Georgevsky, Hussein Mansour, Mahdie Rezaeian, Nafiseh Hosseini, Fathima Gani, Vivek Gupta, Nady Braidy, S. Mojtaba Golzan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that the eye can be used in the assessment of early on-set Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The eye offers a natural window to the brain through the retina. The retina and brain share common developmental origins and patho-physiological origins and mechanisms, having been sequestered from it during early development, but retaining its connections with the brain via the optic nerve. Therefore, it is well understood that neurological abnormalities have a direct profound impact on the retina. Recent studies suggest an array of physiological and pathological changes in the retina in dementia and specifically in AD. There are also reports on imaging the two hallmark proteins of the disease, extracellular amyloid beta peptides and intracellular hyper phosphorylated tau protein, as a proxy to neuroimaging. Results: In this review, we summarise retinal structural, functional and vascular changes reported to be associated with AD. We also review techniques employed to image these two major hall mark proteins of AD and their relevance for early detection of AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1000-1007
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Alzheimer Research
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Beta amyloid
  • Biomarkers
  • Early diagnosis
  • Retina
  • Retinal imaging
  • Tau


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