Dichoptic stimulation improves detection of glaucoma with multifocal visual evoked potentials

Hemamalini Arvind*, Alexander Klistorner, Stuart Graham, John Grigg, Ivan Goldberg, Asya Klistorner, Frank A. Billson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE. To determine whether simultaneous binocular (dichoptic) stimulation for multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) detects glaucomatous defects and decreases intereye variability. METHODS. Twenty-eight patients with glaucoma and 30 healthy subjects underwent mfVEP on monocular and dichoptic stimulation. Dichoptic stimulation was presented with the use of virtual reality goggles (recording time, 7 minutes). Monocular mfVEPs were recorded sequentially for each eye (recording time, 10 minutes). RESULTS. Comparison of mean relative asymmetry coefficient (RAC; calculated as difference in amplitudes between eyes/sum of amplitudes of both eyes at each segment) on monocular and dichoptic mfVEP revealed significantly lower RAC on dichoptic (0.003 ± 0.03) compared with monocular testing (-0.02 ± 0.04; P = 0.002). In all 28 patients, dichoptic mfVEP identified defects with excellent topographic correspondence. Of 56 hemifields (28 eyes), 33 had Humphrey visual field (HFA) scotomas, all of which were detected by dichoptic mfVEP. Among 23 hemifields with normal HFA, two were abnormal on monocular and dichoptic mfVEP. Five hemifields (five patients) normal on HFA and monocular mfVEP were abnormal on dichoptic mfVEP. In all five patients, corresponding rim changes were observed on disc photographs. Mean RAC of glaucomatous eyes was significantly higher on dichoptic (0.283 ± 0.18) compared with monocular (0.199 ± 0.12) tests (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS. Dichoptic mfVEP not only detects HFA losses, it may identify early defects in areas unaffected on HFA and monocular mfVEP while reducing testing time by 30%. Asymmetry was tighter among healthy subjects but wider in patients with glaucoma on simultaneous binocular stimulation, which is potentially a new tool in the early detection of glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4590-4596
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes


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