Ferroelectric polyamide 11 films were prepared by melt-quenching, cold-drawing and electrical poling. Their ferroelectricity was studied by means of dielectric-hysteresis measurements. A remnant polarisation of up to 35 mC/m/sup 2/ and a coercive field of 75 MV/m were obtained. The piezoelectric d/sub 33/ coefficient and the pyroelectric coefficient of the films are reduced by annealing just below the melting region, but remain at about 3 pC/N and 8 /spl mu/C/(m/sup 2/K), respectively, during further heat treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and thermally stimulated depolarisation (TSD) were applied for investigating the conformational changes induced by melt-quenching, cold-drawing and annealing. The results indicate that the cold-drawn film mainly consists of a rigid amorphous phase which exhibits considerably lower conductivity, no glass transition and consequently no dielectric /spl alpha/ relaxation. Instead, an /spl alpha//sub r/ relaxation is found, which is related to chain motions in regions of the rigid amorphous phase where the amide-group dipoles are not perfectly ordered. Annealing removes imperfectly ordered structures, but does not affect the ferroelectric polarisation. Therefore, it may be concluded that essentially the /spl alpha//sub r/ relaxation causes the thermally nonstable part of the piezo- and pyroelectricity in polyamide 11.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|