Diet and risk of adult leukemia: a multicenter case-control study in China

Ping Liu, C. D'Arcy J. Holman, Jie Jin, Min Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Epidemiologic studies on diet and leukemia risk have shown inconsistent results. This study examined the associations between dietary factors and the risk of adult leukemia in Chinese populations. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in southeast and northeast China between 2008 and 2013. It included 442 incident cases with hematologically confirmed leukemia and 442 controls, individually match to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Information on diet was sought from face-to-face interviews using a validated and reliable 103-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Results: Vegetables intake was associated with decreased risk of adult leukemia, with a significant dose–response relationship and adjusted OR of 0.30 (95 % CI 0.18–0.50) for the highest versus the lowest quartiles intake. Compared with non-consumers, the adjusted OR was 0.51 (95 % CI 0.29–0.93) for those who consumed milk at the highest tertile. Intakes of fruits, red meat, poultry, and fish were not associated with the risk. Dietary nutrients, including dietary fiber, carotenoids, vitamins B₁, B₂, and C, niacin, and folate, were significantly associated with reduced risks. Elevated risk was related to dietary intake animal fat and dietary habits with frequent intakes of fat, deep-fried, and smoked foods (p for trend<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that diets rich in vegetables and adequate amount of milk reduce the risk of adult leukemia, whereas diets preferring fat, deep-fried, and smoked foods increase the risk in Chinese populations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1141-1151
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • diet
  • foods
  • nutrients
  • adult leukemia
  • case-control


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