For over 30 years, there has been a continuing concern with differential teacher attention to boys and girls in the classroom. In this article, we review themes and issues in gender and classroom interaction. The evolving theoretical perspectives on gender inequality are discussed and the pertinent empirical evidence is reviewed. The influence of feminism on the way classroom interactions between teachers and their students have been interpreted is considered, as is the way in which disruptive behaviour, mainly exhibited by boys, has impacted on the classroom environment (including referrals to special education services). More recent public concern with the relative underachievement of boys in school is discussed in the light of differential teacher attention to boys and girls.