Dimensions of International Negotiations: Structures, Processes, and Outcomes

Daniel Druckman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Cases of international negotiation are compared in terms of their similarities and dissimilarities. Using both primary and secondary source materials, each case is coded in terms of aspects of the issues, structure, situation, processes, and outcomes of negotiation. One analysis consisted of 23 cases in which Austrian delegations participated. Multidimensional scaling results indicated that a key dimension was the distinction between small bilateral talks and larger multilateral negotiations. Bilateral talks were more likely to be characterized by treaties, low turnover, stage-like processes, and no deadlines. Correlational findings also showed that outside influences had stronger impacts on outcomes than such internal factors as bureaucratic support. A second scaling analysis, based on cases published by the Johns Hopkins' Foreign Policy Institute, produced two dimensions, number and complexity of the issues. The groupings of the cases also corresponded to Iklé's distinctions among types of negotiation. Correlational findings indicated relationships among aspects of the negotiating situation and outcomes. The article concludes with a comparison of the two analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-420
Number of pages26
JournalGroup Decision and Negotiation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Comparative analyses
  • International negotiation cases
  • Multidimensional scaling
  • Number of parties and issues
  • Processes and outcomes
  • Taxonomies


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