Direct reduction process using fines and with reduced CO2 emission

A. Morrison*, S. Hietkamp, D. S. Van Vuuren

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


A direct reduction process for refractory oxides and a life cycle analysis comparison with conventional pallatising and sintering process for chargechrome are presented. The new route has potential to reduce the environmental impact of the ferroalloy industry and to extend the use of non-renewable resources by utilising waste that is not economically recoverable by conventional technologies; increasing metal recoveries; significantly reducing CO 2 emissions; reducing or eliminating the use of coke; and reducing electricity consumption during smelting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-290
Number of pages6
JournalIronmaking and Steelmaking
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes


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