Directionality in copying: memory, handedness, and alignment effects

Elyse Brauch Lehman, Jacqueline Goodnow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Explored were the effects of memory, handedness, and the relative position of model and copy on the sequential behavior (starting points and stroke progressions) of children copying a set of shapes. Exp. 1 (memory) involved 46 kindergarten children; Exp. 2 (handedness), 36 kindergartners; and Exp. 3 (alignment and proximity), 20 children from each of Grades K, 2, and 4. Availability of the model had no effect; children followed the same paths when copying with the model present or with it absent. Handedness, however, affected left right directionality, while the proximity of model and copy affected threading and, to a lesser extent, top bottom directionality. The results are discussed in terms of implications for questions about sources of directionality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)863-872
Number of pages10
JournalPerceptual and Motor Skills
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1975
Externally publishedYes


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