Discriminative thresholds in facial asymmetry: a review of the literature

Tim T. Wang*, Louis Wessels, Gazi Hussain, Steve Merten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Facial symmetry is intimately correlated with attractiveness. Perfect facial symmetry is disconcerting and a degree of facial asymmetry is considered normal. There is a lack of data on the limits of normality across facial subunits.

Objectives: This systematic review aims to establish categories of facial asymmetry perception for facial aesthetic units by establishing a discriminative threshold of "deformity perception" across facial subunits and a threshold for intervention (unacceptable asymmetry).

Methods: A review of the literature was performed across Medline and Embase databases using OvidSP. All prospective studies evaluating the perception of progressive facial asymmetry in laymen or clinicians using a two- or three-dimensional model were included. Studies that did not evaluate rates of perception at varying degrees of asymmetry were excluded as these did not allow for the identification of a perceptive threshold.

Results: Each facial feature possesses a unique threshold of perception defined by an abrupt, statistically significant increase in detection. Asymmetry of the eyelid position at rest is the most sensitive facial feature (perceptive threshold, 2 mm) (P < 0.02). This is followed by deviations of the oral commissure (3 mm) (P < 0.001), brow position (3.5 mm) (P < 0.001), nasal tip deviation (4 mm) (P < 0.001), and chin deviation (6 mm) (P < 0.001). Desire for surgery for worsening deformities beyond the intervention threshold is characterized by an exponential, rather than linear, correlation.

Conclusions: Categories of facial asymmetry perception establish a framework to counsel patients with facial asymmetries, and are a valuable adjunct to clinical judgment in the management of static and dynamic facial deformities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-385
Number of pages11
JournalAesthetic Surgery Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Discriminative thresholds in facial asymmetry: a review of the literature'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this