Dislocation density reduction of virtual Ge substrates by CW diode laser treatment

Ziheng Liu, Xiaojing Hao, Jialiang Huang, Anita Ho-Baillie, Martin A. Green

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionpeer-review


Ge wafers have been employed as substrates for high efficiency III-V multi-junction solar cells because of the almost ideal lattice match. However, the cost of Ge wafers is high and the Ge bandgap is too small which limits its contribution to the overall voltage output. Since Si has much higher bandgap and lower cost than Ge, using epitaxial Ge on Si as virtual substrates for III-V material growth is a promising solution. However, the challenge is the high threading dislocation density (TDD) in the Ge layer generated by the large lattice mismatch (4%) between Ge and Si. Thermal annealing has been intensively investigated in order to reduce TDD in the Ge layer deposited on Si. Two-step low temperature - high temperature Ge deposition followed by thermal annealing and cycled epitaxial Ge growth and annealing have been studied using CVD systems. Compared with conventional thermal processes, the CW diode laser treatment offers a fast and low-cost alternative to effectively reduce the TDD in Ge films. By laser scanning the sample, the Ge layer can be melted and recrystallized. After the laser treatment, the TDD of Ge films can be reduced by three orders of magnitude to 106 cm-2 which may be suitable for fabrication of III-V solar cells. Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy measurements are employed to investigate the TDD reduction of the virtual Ge substrates.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Number of pages3
ISBN (Electronic)9781509027248
ISBN (Print)9781509027255
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes
Event43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016 - Portland, United States
Duration: 5 Jun 201610 Jun 2016


Conference43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, PVSC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States


Dive into the research topics of 'Dislocation density reduction of virtual Ge substrates by CW diode laser treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this