This article hypothesizes that individuals' environmental attitudes depend not only on their knowledge, interests, emotions, and values but also on the social context in which they live. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the 2000/01 ISSP-II Survey on Environmental Attitudes; the data include respondents from 23 countries. Our findings show that individual characteristics influence both "pessimistic environmental orientations" and "the willingness to act in favor of the environment." As for social context, the level of development and affluence, the degree of political centralization, the presence of green movements and parties, and the degree of objective pollution in a country are all important. However, their influences on fatalism and willingness vary.