Distance measures to compare real and ideal quantum processes

Alexei Gilchrist*, Nathan K. Langford, Michael A. Nielsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

422 Citations (Scopus)


With growing success in experimental implementations it is critical to identify a “gold standard†for quantum information processing, a single measure of distance that can be used to compare and contrast different experiments. We enumerate a set of criteria that such a distance measure must satisfy to be both experimentally and theoretically meaningful. We then assess a wide range of possible measures against these criteria, before making a recommendation as to the best measures to use in characterizing quantum information processing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062310
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalPhysical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2005
Externally publishedYes


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