Tall people, particularly those with long legs, have an increased risk of developing cancer but a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. We examined associations of stature and body mass index with IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 in 274 men aged 50-70 yr to investigate whether variations in growth factor levels underlie associations of anthropometry with a number of adult diseases. Height and leg and trunk length were not strongly associated with circulating levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, or IGFBP-3. The molar ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 increased with increases in the leg/trunk length ratio (P = 0.06). IGFBP-2 was positively associated with leg length and inversely associated with trunk length. Mean levels of IGFBP-2 (in nanograms per milliliter) across quartiles of increasing leg length were 504.4 493.6, 528.7, and 578.8 (Ptrend = 0.06), and for trunk length were 615.2, 507.2, 498.6, 488.5 (Ptrend < 0.01), suggesting that variations in IGFBP-2, or a factor influencing its levels in the circulation, may contribute to biological mechanisms underlying height-disease associations. We conclude that whereas growth-influencing exposures during childhood, which may operate through effects on IGF-I levels, have long-term influences on disease risk, they do not necessarily program IGF-I levels throughout life. The associations of anthropometry with IGFBP-2 merit additional investigation.