Two studies were conducted to test the central claim of the self-teaching hypothesis (i.e., phonological recoding is necessary for orthographic learning) in silent reading. The first study aimed to demonstrate the use of phonological recoding during silent reading. Texts containing pseudowords were read silently or aloud. Two days later, target spellings were recognized more often than their homophone spellings. In both reading conditions, homophone alternatives were named faster than nonexposed pseudowords, suggesting that phonological recoding had occurred. The second study aimed to suppress phonological recoding to demonstrate its necessity for orthographic learning. Lexical decisions were performed in a standard condition, with concurrent articulation, or with tapping. One day later, target spellings were recognized less often after lexical decisions with concurrent articulation. Target and homophone naming speed was not affected by lexical decision condition. The results support the use of phonological recoding during silent reading and specify its role in orthographic learning.