Objectives: We assessed whether changes at week 12 in markers of bone turnover, inflammation, and immune activation were associated with clinically important (≥ 5%) bone mineral density (BMD) loss from baseline to week 48 at the proximal femur (hip) and lumbar spine in the SECOND-LINE study. Methods: We measured concentrations of procollagen type 1 pro-peptide (P1NP), carboxyl-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), D-dimer, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), neopterin, and soluble CD14 and 163 at weeks 0, 12, and 48 in 123 SECOND-LINE dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) substudy participants. Linear regression was used to compare changes in biomarkers. Predictors of ≥ 5% BMD loss were examined using multivariable regression. Results: The mean age was 38 years, the mean CD4 T-cell count was 252 cells/µL and the mean viral load was 4.2 log HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; 56% of participants were female and 47% were randomized to receive a nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]-based regimen [91% (53/58) were randomized to receive a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-containing regimen]. Over 48 weeks, 71% in the N(t)RTI arm experienced ≥ 5% hip BMD loss vs. 29% in the raltegravir arm (P = 0.001). Week 12 changes in P1NP and CTX were significantly greater among patients experiencing ≥ 5% hip BMD loss, patients randomized to N(t)RTI, and male patients. Predictors of ≥ 5% hip BMD loss at week 48 were P1NP increase [odds ratio (OR) 5.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-27; P < 0.043]; N(t)RTI randomization (OR 6.7; 95% CI 2.0–27.1; P < 0.003), being African, higher baseline CD4 T cell count , and smoking. Conclusions: In a diverse cohort of viraemic HIV‐infected patients, switching to second‐line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was associated with clinically significant BMD loss, which was correlated with an early increase in P1NP. Measurement of P1NP may facilitate timely interventions to reduce rapid BMD loss among at‐risk patients.
- antiretroviral therapy
- bone mineral density loss
- low- and middle-income countries
- procollagen type 1 pro-peptide (P1NP)