This study examines the impact of cefepime and APP-β (antipseudomonal penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations) on Gram-negative bacterial colonization and resistance in two Australian ICUs. While resistance did not cumulatively increase, cefepime (but not APP-βtreatment) was associated with acquisition of antibiotic resistant Enterobacteriaceae, consistent with an ecological effect Analysis of the resident gut E. coli population in a subset of patients showed an increase in markers of horizontal gene transfer after cefepime exposure that helps explain the increase in APP-βresistance and reminds us that unmeasured impacts on the microbiome are key outcome determinants that need to be fully explored.
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- ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE