OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the health economics evidence based on randomized controlled trials of pharmacist-led medication review in pharmacotherapy managed cardiovascular disease risk factors, specifically, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia in ambulatory settings and to provide recommendations for future evaluations.
METHODS: A systematic review was carried out according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. PubMed (Medline), Scopus, Web of Science, National Health System Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Cochrane Library, and Econlit were searched and screened by two independent authors. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was the main outcome. Risk of bias was assessed with the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care tool by the Cochrane Collaboration. Economic evaluation quality was assessed with the he Consensus Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC list).
RESULTS: 5636 records were found, and 174 were retrieved for full-text review yielding 11 articles. Eight articles deemed the intervention as cost effective and two as dominant. Two cost-utility analyses were performed yielding ICERs of $612.7 and $59.8 per QALY. Four articles were considered to perform a high-quality economic evaluation and four had a low risk of bias. Future economic evaluations should consider cost-utility analysis, to describe usual care thoroughly, and use time horizons that capture the effect of cardiovascular disease prevention, a societal perspective and uncertainty analysis.
CONCLUSION: Pharmacist-led medication review has proven to be cost effective in various studies in different settings. Policy decision makers are advised to undertake local economic evaluations reflecting the gaps observed in this systematic review and published literature. If this is not possible, a transferability assessment should be conducted.
- Medication review
- Economic evaluation
- Cardiovascular disease
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus