Slow pyrolysis of heavy-metal(loid)-contaminated Avicennia marina biomass obtained from phytoremediation was conducted to investigate the deportment of 12 heavy metal(loid)s in pyrolysis products (biochar, bio-oil, gas) at temperatures from 300 to 800 °C. The results indicated that different heavy metal(loid)s showed diverse volatilities, while all elements tended to transform into volatile products with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. Cd was found highly volatile, while Fe and Cu were non-volatile elements. The leaching analysis of biochars showed that pyrolysis was effective in reducing the mobility and bioavailability of the heavy metal(loid)s in biochars. Moreover, the risk assessment of biochars showed that the biochars derived from polluted biomass can be used as a potential soil amendment. Considering the energy consumption and risk of contaminant emission, pyrolysis temperatures of 400 to 500 °C were considered to be the optimum option for pyrolysis of this biomass.
- Metal(loid) contamination
- Heavy metal(loid) deportment