Molybdenum (Mo) thin films are still a dominant choice for the back contact layer of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells. This paper presents a review of Mo back contacts for CIGS and CZTS solar cells, including the requirements for a good back contact, the reason for the choice of Mo, and post-treatment. Additionally, a Mo bilayer back contact was fabricated by varying the argon (Ar) pressure during sputtering to provide both low resistivity and good adhesion to the soda-lime glass substrate. The effects of vacuum thermal annealing on the electrical, morphological and structural properties of the Mo bilayer were also investigated. Vacuum thermal annealing was seen to densify the Mo bilayer, reduce the sheet resistance, and improve the bilayer's adhesion to the soda-lime glass. The Mo bilayer back contact with a low sheet resistance of 0.132 Ω/□ and strong adhesion was made for chalcogenide- and kesterite-based solar cells.
- Vacuum thermal annealing