The first elections to the newly created 41 posts of Police and Crime Commissioner in England and Wales were held in November 2012. The results show all the main characteristics of second-order elections. Turnout was low. The two unpopular coalition parties in the national government lost vote share compared to the outcome of the most recent general election, whereas the main opposition party's share increased substantially-as did that of a minor party (UKIP). Labour, Liberal Democrat and UKIP candidates all performed better than expected, the more that they spent on the campaign-although spending was in general low compared to the legal maxima. A number of independents were elected, all in areas where the Conservative Party performed well in the 2010 general election: almost all of the independents who reached the second round of the supplementary vote system gained a clear majority of the second preference votes.