This study provides a new approach of electrode dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (electroanammox) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) integrated hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs). The study was carried out in three CWs, each with a horizontal flow (HF) followed by a vertical upflow (VUF). Two of the CWs were integrated with MFC, one was operated in closed circuit (CL) mode and the other in open circuit (OP) mode to determine the influence of electron transfer through an external electrical circuit. The initial nitrogen and carbon concentration were 40 mg/l and 880 mg/l respectively. The total nitrogen (TN), NH4+-N, TOC and COD removal achieved in CW-MFC-CL were 90.0 ± 1.15%, 94.4 ± 0.75%, 64.8 ± 3.0% and up to 99.5 ± 3.4%, respectively. The TN and NH4+-N removal in CW-MFC-CL was 20.0% and 13.6% higher than normal CW. Maximum current density achieved in CW-MFC-HF was of 75 mA/m3 and in CW-MFC-VUF was 156 mA/m3. Furthermore, the study revealed that even at low microbiological biomass, an MFC integrated CW operating in closed circuit gave higher removal of NH4+-N and COD than the normal CW and open circuit CW-MFC. Microbiological analysis shows the presence of already known nitrifier and denitrifer which indicates their role in electrode dependent nitrogen removal.
- Anaerobic ammonium oxidation
- Hybrid constructed wetlands
- Constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell
- Organic matter and nitrogen removal