Fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate is typically used for state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) is better due to higher transparency for a given conductivity, although it has lower tolerance to high-temperature processes required for the compact and mesoporous TiO2 layers. Here we overcome this challenge by developing and utilizing a new electrode design. We successfully demonstrate high-efficiency mesoscopic PSCs on annealed ITO substrates showing improved photocurrent without sacrificing fill factor. After further optimizations of cell geometry and substrate conductivity guided by simulation, a certified 19.63% efficiency is achieved on 1 cm2 for ITO-based mesoscopic PSC, which is the highest among PSCs prepared by gas quenching. This work is useful for providing design principles and methods for optimizing cell geometry, metal electrode design, and substrate conductivity requirements for large-area PSCs.