Emergy perspectives on the environmental performance and sustainability of small-scale gold production systems in Ghana

Ernest Frimpong Asamoah, Lixiao Zhang, Sai Liang, Mingyue Pang, Shoujuan Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Small-scale gold mining is an important component of the Ghanaian economy but it has also caused enormous damage to local ecosystems. In this paper, an emergy analysis was conducted in Ghana to assess the environmental performance and the relative sustainability of two artisanal and small-scale gold production systems: alluvial "dig and wash" and underground "ghetto" mines. Results show that both production systems have high environmental impacts, as indicated by an environmental loading ratio (ELR) of 4.31 and environmental sustainability index (ESI) of 0.33 for the alluvial system and 2.53 and 0.52 for the underground system, respectively. Concerning the international trade balance, the emergy exchange ratios of the two systems are both lower than one, at, 0.23 and 0.33 for the alluvial and underground systems, respectively, indicating a significant amount of resource loss to foreign regions. This study could assist in the regulation of the small-scale mining sector bearing in mind the unsustainable nature of their activities. In addition, supporting miners to consider land rehabilitation ethics is urgently needed.

LanguageEnglish
Article number2034
Pages1-17
Number of pages17
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes

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emergy
gold
Ghana
production system
Sustainable development
Gold
sustainability
small scale mining
Gold mines
International trade
Miners
international trade
ethics
Patient rehabilitation
Ecosystems
performance
Environmental impact
environmental impact
damage
ecosystem

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2017. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Cite this

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abstract = "Small-scale gold mining is an important component of the Ghanaian economy but it has also caused enormous damage to local ecosystems. In this paper, an emergy analysis was conducted in Ghana to assess the environmental performance and the relative sustainability of two artisanal and small-scale gold production systems: alluvial {"}dig and wash{"} and underground {"}ghetto{"} mines. Results show that both production systems have high environmental impacts, as indicated by an environmental loading ratio (ELR) of 4.31 and environmental sustainability index (ESI) of 0.33 for the alluvial system and 2.53 and 0.52 for the underground system, respectively. Concerning the international trade balance, the emergy exchange ratios of the two systems are both lower than one, at, 0.23 and 0.33 for the alluvial and underground systems, respectively, indicating a significant amount of resource loss to foreign regions. This study could assist in the regulation of the small-scale mining sector bearing in mind the unsustainable nature of their activities. In addition, supporting miners to consider land rehabilitation ethics is urgently needed.",
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Emergy perspectives on the environmental performance and sustainability of small-scale gold production systems in Ghana. / Asamoah, Ernest Frimpong; Zhang, Lixiao; Liang, Sai; Pang, Mingyue; Tang, Shoujuan.

In: Sustainability (Switzerland), Vol. 9, No. 11, 2034, 15.11.2017, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Zhang,Lixiao

AU - Liang,Sai

AU - Pang,Mingyue

AU - Tang,Shoujuan

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Y1 - 2017/11/15

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