Employers in 1999 continued their learning under the 1996 Act, viewed it favourably but did not greatly change their use of the regulatory instruments it offers. For this, they fell foul of an interventionist minister. Faced with partial union resurgence, they sought legislative changes to further weaken unionism. Overall, employer attitudes, as expressed through their associations, continued to show conver gence, while competition among associations intensified. Divergence was related to operational strategies of single employers and to the national policy level, including the Coalition's amendment package. Legislative defeat turned a year of promise for the 'Workplace Relations Club' into one of worrying defeat.