Employing the operational model to measure system-independent OTR efficacy

Kiyan Afzali*, Mark Connor*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Ideally, pharmacological analysis is based on quantitative measurements applied toward unveiling biological mechanisms and guiding medicinal chemistry efforts in drug discovery and basic research. The most robust analysis frameworks generate findings which can be dissociated from the specific experimental setting to provide insights of a broader scope. With insufficient efficacy being the leading cause of drug failures in late-stage clinical trials, more rigorous preclinical definitions might assist in better translation. This chapter details a new method for accessing the Black and Leff operational model of agonism using a stable Flp-In™ T-REx™ HEK293 cell line under tetracycline-dependent control of OTR expression. We cover steps for performing the Gq-coupled HTRF® IP-One assay, curve-fitting data, calculating and statistically representing system-independent drug activity, predicting responses in different sensitivities, and plotting of multivariate analyses.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOxytocin
Subtitle of host publicationmethods and protocols
EditorsEryn L. Werry, Tristan A. Reekie, Michael Kassiou
Place of PublicationNew York, NY
PublisherHumana Press
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781071617595
ISBN (Print)9781071617588
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Oxytocin receptor (OTR)
  • G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)
  • Tetracycline-inducible expression (Flp-In™ T-REx™)
  • IP-One (IP1) accumulation assay
  • Black and Leff operational model of agonism
  • Drug discovery and development
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Black and Leff operational model of agonism
  • Drug discovery and development


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