Employment and output for the cultural industries

David Throsby, Anita Zednik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Models of industries producing cultural goods and services have received some attention recently, reflecting an increasing policy interest in the contribution that these industries make to output and employment in the economy. This paper reports the results of an extensive exercise to assemble data on the employment and output of the cultural industries in five countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the USA. Industries are defined according to the concentric circles model of the cultural sector and the data are used to test the foundational assumptions of this model. The paper also compares this model with two others (the “symbolic texts” model and the World Intellectual Property Organisation model). The results show that estimates of the size of the cultural sector of the economy will vary significantly according to the model used to define the cultural industries.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalMacquarie economics research papers
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • creative economy
  • cultural industries
  • cultural occupations


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