This paper provides a discussion of endogeneity as it relates to finance and accounting research. We discuss the textbook solutions: two-stage least squares, instrumental variables, differenced generalized method of moments (GMM) and system GMM and provide a unifying framework showing how they are related. We consider the limitations of these techniques and then detail a state-of-the-art solution, utilizing a natural experiment as a way of mitigating endogeneity and building stronger theory.
- Corporate governance
- Natural or quasi experiment