Endoscopic Anatomy of the Protympanum

Nicholas Jufas, Daniele Marchioni, Muaaz Tarabichi, Nirmal Patel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The protympanum, a final common pathway between the tympanic cavity and external environment, is gaining relevance due to the ease and completeness of visualization with angled endoscopes. Two primary conformations are described, quadrangular and triangular; and new anatomic structures such as the protiniculum, subtensor recess, and protympanic spine are defined. Surgical relevance of the protympanum is described with respect to ventilation, cholesteatoma, cerebrospinal fluid leak, otic neuralgia, and surgical access to the eustachian tube.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1107-1119
Number of pages14
JournalOtolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • Endoscopic ear surgery
  • Protympanum
  • Surgical anatomy
  • Tensor tympani
  • Carotid artery
  • Protiniculum

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