Energy- and mobility-aware scheduling for perpetual trajectory tracking

Philipp Sommer*, Kai Geissdoerfer, Raja Jurdak, Branislav Kusy, Jiajun Liu, Kun Zhao, Adam McKeown, David Westcott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Energy-efficient location tracking with battery-powered devices using energy harvesting necessitates duty-cycling of GPS to prolong the system lifetime. We propose an energy- and mobility-aware scheduling framework that adapts to real-world dynamics to achieve optimal long-term tracking performance. To forecast energy, the framework uses an exponentially weighted moving average filter to compute a virtual energy budget for the remainder of the forecast period. The virtual energy budget is then used as input for our proposed information-based GPS sampling approach, which estimates the current tracking error through dead-reckoning and schedules a new GPS sample when the error exceeds a given threshold. In order to improve the long-term tracking performance, the threshold is adapted based on the current energy and movement trends to balance the expected information gain from a new GPS sample with its energy cost. We evaluate our approach on empirical traces from wild flying foxes and compare it to strategies that sample GPS using fixed and adaptive duty cycles and by using dead-reckoning with a fixed threshold. Our analysis shows that the proposed information-based GPS sampling strategy reduces the mean tracking error compared to existing methods and approaches the performance of the optimal offline sampling strategy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-580
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • energy awareness
  • energy harvesting
  • GPS
  • positioning
  • scheduler
  • Trajectory tracking

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