When the United States entered World War I in 1917, there was no elaborate framework for providing scientific advice to the government. Engineers and scientists struggled to find an appropriate mechanism, but the former found themselves subordinated to a scientific community which sought to dominate emerging structures. At stake was not merely the credit for helping win the war, but also an advantage in the coming postwar definition and expansion of industrial research. Scientific leaders sought advantage by making a distinction between 'engineering research' and engineering practice, and claiming jurisdiction over the former.
- Government industrial research
- National Academy of Engineering
- National Academy of Science
- National Research Council
- United States